Toxic Plants for Dogs, Cats and Children

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Alfalfa is an excellent forage crop when harvested and stored properly. However, the plant can cause "hepatogenous photosensitivity syndrome" if water-damaged

American Coffee Berry Tree see Kentucky Coffee Tree Kentucky coffee tree is a large round-barked tree belonging to the legume family and reaches heights of 60 to 100 feet. Its short trunk, 1 to 2 feet in diameter, divides into several large branches that end in contorted, stout twigs. Twice-compound leaves are arranged feather-fashion in 3-7 pairs of leaflets which are more or less ovalish without marginal teeth and 2-4 inches long. The tree is most easity identified in fall and winter for its large deressed leaf scars. The leaf which emerges late in spring is made up of a hundred or more separate oval leaflets arranged on the branches of the rib. The flower, which blooms in May, is inconspicuous, greenish-white in terminal racemes, and has a tubular base about 1/2 inch long. Male and female flowers are found on the same tree. The fruit is a thick, flat pod, containing 4-7 flat broad seeds with a sticky pulp between them. The pulp dries at maturity and the seeds become olive-brown, 1/2 – 3/4 inches in diameter.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

Bouncing Bet (Saponaria officinalis L.)

Bull Nettle (Solanum carolinense L.)

Bracken or Brake Fern (Pteridium aquilinum L.) Bracken fern is a typical fern. Its large triangular fronds are divided into three main parts with each part bipinnately subdivided. These fronds are 2 to 4 feet long by 1 to 3 feet wide. They are borne at the tips of erect, rigid, straw-colored, smooth stalks 1 to 3 feet tall. The stalks rise at intervals from stout black underground rootstocks sometimes a yard or more long.

Burning Bush see Fireweed Other names: Summer Cypress, Burning Bush, Mexican Fireweed

Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.)

Carelessweed see Pigweed Other common names Carelessweed, Redroot

Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.) Castor bean is a herbacious annual which can reach to nearly 15 feet tall when growing in open spaces in warm climates. Large leaves are alternate, palmately lobed with 5-11 toothed lobes. Leaves are glossy and often red or bronze tinted when young. Flowers appear in clusters at the end of the main stem in late summer. The fruit consists of an oblong spiny pod which contains three seeds on average. Seeds are oval and light brown, mottled or streaked with light and dark brown and resemble a pinto bean. The plant itself is fast growing, but the seeds require a long frost-free season in order to mature.

Clover, Alsike & Other Clovers (Trifolium hybridum L. & other species) Alsike clover is a many-stemmed herb 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 feet high, much like the common red and white clovers, of which it is a hybrid. Its stems and leaves are not hairy. Its leaves, like those of all other clovers, are made up of 3 leaflets grouped at the ends of the long leafstalks. There are no crescents in the leaflets. Its flowers, borne in rather compact, stalked heads, are usually pink but range from red to white. Its seeds are smaller than those of red clover and are dark yellow-green.

Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) The cocklebur plant is a coarse herbaceous annual about 3 feet high. They have erect, stout stems and spreading branches that are angled and often red-spotted. The leaves are alternate, rough to the touch, and broadly triangular to heart-shaped. Cockleburs produce two kinds of flowers. One kind, in short terminal branches, produces only pollen; the other kind, in clusters in the axils of the leaves, produces seed. The fruit is a small, hard, 2-chambered bur, oval in shape and about 3/4 inch long. It is covered with strong, hooked spines. This plant reproduces only by means of its seed. The seedling, the plant's most dangerous stage, is very different from the mature plant. It consists of a slender, straight whitish green stem 1 to 3 inches tall. Capping this stem are two strap-shaped green leaves, each about 1 1/4 inches long and l/4 inch wide. Leaves produced after these first leaves gradually assume the characteristic shape of those of the mature plant. Proof of the identity of young seedlings may be found in their attachment underground to the easily recognized burs from which they sprout.

Creeping Charlie see Ground Ivy Ground ivy is a low, prostrate perennial herb with slender 4-sided stems that hug the ground, root at their joints, and often cover areas of many square feet. Its leaves, two at a joint, are raised on slender stalks. They are roundish and have scalloplike teeth on their margins. Its small bluish flowers, found in the axils of the leaves, appear from April to May and even into July

Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia milii) A low-growing evergreen shrub with very thorny grooved stems and branches. The stems are purplish brown and are 1-2 feet tall on average, but can reach 3 feet in a warm climate. The thorns are sharp pointed and are 1/2 inch long on avarage. The ovate leaves are 1-3 inches long, few in number, and are found mostly at the growing ends. The cyathia, a type of inflorescence characteristic of the genus Euphorbia, are born in small umbels and have showy, ovate and bright red bracts. The small flowers are produced in clusters of 2-8 at the tips of green flower stem about 1 inch long. Genus Euphorbia includes other commonly available plants such as poinsettia ( E. pulcherrima ) and snow-on-the-mountain ( E. marginata ).

Curly Dock (Rumex crispus L.)

Daffodil (Narcissus spp.)

Delphinium (Delphinium spp.)

Devil's Trumpet see Jimson Weed Jimsonweed is a stout, coarse annual herb 2 to 5 feet tall, with spreading branches. It has a pale-green stem and large, ovate, green or purplish, strong-scented leaves, coarsely toothed on their margins. Its flowers are large, white, and tubular, 2 to 4 inches long, and set on short stalks in the axils of branches. Its circular seeds, about 1/8 inch across, are contained in a hard, prickly capsule which, when ripe, splits lengthwise into four parts. Other common names Jamestown Weed, Thorn Apple, Devil's Trumpet, Mad Apple, Stink Weed.

Dogbane (Apocynum spp.)

Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh.)

Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L.)

English Ivy (Hedera helix L.)

Ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) Ergot is a fungus that lives as a parasite in the blossoms of grasses. When the grass heads are nearly mature, it appears as jumbo grains protruding from the heads. Ergot grains, which are fungus bodies and not seeds, are several to many times the size of the grass seed. They are dark violet to almost black and are curved, hard, and hornlike. Ergot varies in abundance from year to year.

Fern, Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum L.) Bracken fern is a typical fern. Its large triangular fronds are divided into three main parts with each part bipinnately subdivided. These fronds are 2 to 4 feet long by 1 to 3 feet wide. They are borne at the tips of erect, rigid, straw-colored, smooth stalks 1 to 3 feet tall. The stalks rise at intervals from stout black underground rootstocks sometimes a yard or more long. Spores are borne in late summer at the edges on the lower sides of mature fronds, and the edges fold under to form the spore cover. The rootstocks also spread the fern.

Fireweed (Kochia scoparia L.) Other names: Summer Cypress, Burning Bush, Mexican Fireweed

Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.)

Ground Ivy (Glecoma hederacea L.) Ground ivy is a low, prostrate perennial herb with slender 4-sided stems that hug the ground, root at their joints, and often cover areas of many square feet. Its leaves, two at a joint, are raised on slender stalks. They are roundish and have scalloplike teeth on their margins. Its small bluish flowers, found in the axils of the leaves, appear from April to May and even into July.

Hemlock (2)

Poison (Conium maculatum L.) Poison hemlock is a coarse biennial herb with a smooth, purple-spotted, hollow stem and leaves like parsley. It grows 3 to 6 feet tall and in late summer has many small white flowers in showy umbels. Its leaves are extremely nauseating when tasted.

Water (Cicuta maculata L.) This 2-10 feet tall herbaceous perennial or biennial native of the Umbelliferae family is very difficult to separate from other species of the same family. It has a tuberous root with 2-8 oblong tubers which are 1.5-3 inches long and about 1/2 inch thick at the thickest point near the middle and stem end. The purple-streaked stems are stout and erect with much branching. The stems are solid when very young, but become hollow with nodes where the leaflets are attached. The stems are chambered with horizontal diaphragm of pith tissue which are more closely arranged at the base of the stem. The horizontal plates of piths are most easily visible by cutting the stem base lengthwise. Flowers are white and tiny (no more than 1/8 inch across), have 5 petals, and appear in loose compound umbels at branch ends in mid summer. Umbels measure from 2 to 8 inches across and become somewhat spherical in fruit. Fruits are ovoid and ribbed on the outer surface.

Horse Chestnut, Buckeyes (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

Horse Nettle (Solanum carolinense L.)

Horsetails (Equisetum arvense L. & other species)

Hyacinth (Hyacinth orientalis) Hyacinth is one of all the early spring blooming flowers most favored by home gardeners. It is a bulbous herb of the lily family with its origin in the Mediterranean region and cultivated in many color varieties. Green leaves, 7-8 per bulb, all arising from the ground level, are fleshy, glossy, narrow with smooth margins, 4-12 inches long and about 3/4 inches wide without marginal teeth. Flowers, borne in a dense raceme on a 6-8 inch long stem, are bell-shaped, and eventually open into 6 reflexed tepals. The flower is most well known for its fragrance. Fruits are globose and have 3 divisions. The bulb is 1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter, light purple or cream colored, and covered with dry skin-like layers.

Hydrangea (Hydrangea spp.) The cultivated species, Hydrangea macrophylla Ser. (= H. hortensis ), is a deciduous shrub which can reach to nearly 6 feet. The common cultivated species is grown widely in gardens and as potted plants. The flowers among the cultivated species include white, pink, mauve, bluish purple, to blue. The forms of the flower clusters and the leaves of the cultivated species are similar to those of the cold-hardy wild species ( H. arborescens L.). Wild hydrangeas, H. quercifolia Bartr. and H. arborescens L. , are shrubs which reach 3.5 to 10 feet in height. The stems are light green when new, turning light brown and woody with time. Leaves are alternate, 4-10 inches in length, dark green above, lighter or pale green on the underside. The leaves of H. quercifolia Bartr. are deeply lobed, while those of the other species (H. arborescens L.) are broadly rounded with apex tapering to a point. Flowers appear in clusters or heads, mostly with 4 petals in white or cream color, blooming from June to July. The capsular fruit is less than 1/8 inch in length and has many small, thin brown seeds.

Ivy(3)

English (Hedera helix L.)

Ground (Glecoma hederacea L.) Ground ivy is a low, prostrate perennial herb with slender 4-sided stems that hug the ground, root at their joints, and often cover areas of many square feet. Its leaves, two at a joint, are raised on slender stalks. They are roundish and have scalloplike teeth on their margins. Its small bluish flowers, found in the axils of the leaves, appear from April to May and even into July.

Poison (Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze)

Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema spp.)

Jamestown Weed see Jimson Weed Jimsonweed is a stout, coarse annual herb 2 to 5 feet tall, with spreading branches. It has a pale-green stem and large, ovate, green or purplish, strong-scented leaves, coarsely toothed on their margins. Its flowers are large, white, and tubular, 2 to 4 inches long, and set on short stalks in the axils of branches. Its circular seeds, about 1/8 inch across, are contained in a hard, prickly capsule which, when ripe, splits lengthwise into four parts.

Japanese Yew (Taxus cuspidata Sieb. & Zucc.)

Jerusalem Cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum L.)

Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium L.) Jimsonweed is a stout, coarse annual herb 2 to 5 feet tall, with spreading branches. It has a pale-green stem and large, ovate, green or purplish, strong-scented leaves, coarsely toothed on their margins. Its flowers are large, white, and tubular, 2 to 4 inches long, and set on short stalks in the axils of branches. Its circular seeds, about 1/8 inch across, are contained in a hard, prickly capsule which, when ripe, splits lengthwise into four parts.

Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch) Kentucky coffee tree is a large round-barked tree belonging to the legume family and reaches heights of 60 to 100 feet. Its short trunk, 1 to 2 feet in diameter, divides into several large branches that end in contorted, stout twigs. Twice-compound leaves are arranged feather-fashion in 3-7 pairs of leaflets which are more or less ovalish without marginal teeth and 2-4 inches long. The tree is most easity identified in fall and winter for its large deressed leaf scars. The leaf which emerges late in spring is made up of a hundred or more separate oval leaflets arranged on the branches of the rib. The flower, which blooms in May, is inconspicuous, greenish-white in terminal racemes, and has a tubular base about 1/2 inch long. Male and female flowers are found on the same tree. The fruit is a thick, flat pod, containing 4-7 flat broad seeds with a sticky pulp between them. The pulp dries at maturity and the seeds become olive-brown, 1/2 – 3/4 inches in diameter.

Kentucky Mahagony Tree see Kentucky Coffee Tree

Klamath Weed see St. Johnswort

Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album L.)

Lantana (Lantana camara L.) Lantana (yellow sage) is a native of tropical Americas and West Africa. In the northern states including Illinois, it is grown as a garden annual reaching 12-18 inches tall . In the south, from Florida to California, it grows as a perennial shrub of 3-6 feet tall. In the tropics, it may grow even taller. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 1-5 inches long and 1-2 inches wide, with very small rounded teeth, somewhat rough and hairy. Leaves are aromatic when crushed. Flowers are borne in dense clusters 1-2 inches across on the axils near the top of the stem. Each flower is tubular with 4 lobes flaring to about 1/4 inch, initially yellow or pink gradually changing to orange and deep red. Often, the different colored flowers are present on the same cluster. Fruit is fleshy, greenish-blue to black, and berry-like with each containing one seed.

Larkspur (Delphinium spp.)

Lily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria majalis)

Lupine (Lupinus spp.)

Mad Apple see Jimson Weed

Maple, Red (Acer rubrum)

Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) Mayapple is a perennial herb of the Barberry family. Leaves are umbrella-shaped and are about 8 inches wide with 5-9 lobes. Plants that have a single leaf do not flower, while those with two leaves develop a single flower in the axil of the leaf stalks. The flower appears at the end of the downward-curved flower stalk about 1 inch long. The flower, with 6 or more white petals and about 1.5-2 inches across, blooms in April to May, and is eventually replaced by a green ovoid fruit. The plant withers away by mid-summer. Although the creeping, fleshy rhizome has been used to prepare medicine commercially, it is poisonous by contact. The green leaves and unripened fruit are poisonous but the fruit becomes edible as it ripens and turns greenish-yellow in color.

Milkweed, Common (Asclepias syriaca L.)

Mint, Purple (Perilla frutescens)

Nicker Tree see Kentucky Coffee Tree Other common names include: American coffee berry, Kentucky mahogony, nicker treet, stump tree. Kentucky coffee tree is a large round-barked tree belonging to the legume family and reaches heights of 60 to 100 feet. Its short trunk, 1 to 2 feet in diameter, divides into several large branches that end in contorted, stout twigs. Twice-compound leaves are arranged feather-fashion in 3-7 pairs of leaflets which are more or less ovalish without marginal teeth and 2-4 inches long. The tree is most easity identified in fall and winter for its large deressed leaf scars. The leaf which emerges late in spring is made up of a hundred or more separate oval leaflets arranged on the branches of the rib. The flower, which blooms in May, is inconspicuous, greenish-white in terminal racemes, and has a tubular base about 1/2 inch long. Male and female flowers are found on the same tree. The fruit is a thick, flat pod, containing 4-7 flat broad seeds with a sticky pulp between them. The pulp dries at maturity and the seeds become olive-brown, 1/2 – 3/4 inches in diameter.

Nightshade (Solanum spp.) About 1,500 Solanum species exist in the world, and they include some of the most common garden plants such as potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) and eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.). One of the species, Jerusalem cherry ( Solanum pseudocapcicum L.) is grown as a house plant for its compact form and small round berries which turn bright red at maturity. The tomato ( Lycopercison esculentum Mill.) is also a related plant. Included in this entry are descriptions of Black Nightshade, Bittersweet Nightshade, Silverleaf Nightshade, and Horse Nettle. Other related species may be found under their own names. Bittersweet Nightshade (S. dulcamara) Bittersweet nightshade is also known as European bittersweet or climbing nightshade. This plant grows from rhizomes and is a slender climbing or trailing perennial reaching 6 feet in length. Leaves are alternate, ovate, simple or deeply lobed, 1-1/2 to 4 inches long, and pointed at the tip. Flowers are deep purple or bluish purple with flower stalk arising between the leaf nodes or opposite the leaves. Nearly round fruits turn red when mature and stay on the vines through mid winter. Black Nightshade (S. nigrum) Black nightshade is an annual herb with a tap root. Stems are erect and much branched reaching 3 feet tall. Leaves alternate, ovate or lanceolate, and long-stalked. The flower has 5 white petals, sometimes with a yellow inner star, and ranges from 1/4 inch to 3/8 inch across. Berries are round and about 1/4 or so inches across, green, and turn purplish to black when ripe. Immature berries and foliage are toxic, but ripe fruits are reportedly edible. Plants commonly known as back nightshade may include two native species, American Black Nightshade (S. americanum P. Mill.) and Eastern Black Nightshade (S. ptycanthum Dun.) , as well as S. nigrum which was introduced from Europe and is widely naturalized. Solanum ptycanthum may be more commonly found in the midwest since S. americanum appears to be more concentrated in the southern states. Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle (S. carolinense) A perennial with a deep taproot and rhizome below ground. Its stem and leaves have yellowish spines and sometimes are hairy. Leaves are alternate and ovate with irregularly wavy or lobed margins. Flowers appear in June to August, are light purple to white, 3/4 to 1 inch across, and in short racemes near the top of the plant. Petals are united with 5 points at the margin. Fruits are globose, about 1/2 inch in diameter and yellow when mature. Yellow or brownish seeds are numerous, and irregularly circular, about 1/8 inch across.

 

Oleander (Nerium oleander L.)

Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra Willd.)

Philodendron (Philodendron spp.)

Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) Other common names Carelessweed, Redroot

Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) Poison hemlock is a coarse biennial herb with a smooth, purple-spotted, hollow stem and leaves like parsley. It grows 3 to 6 feet tall and in late summer has many small white flowers in showy umbels. Its leaves are extremely nauseating when tasted. Although sometimes confused with water hemlock, poison hemlock can be distinguished by its leaves and its roots. The leaf veins of the poison hemlock run to the tips of the teeth; those of the water hemlock run to the notches between the teeth. The poison hemlock root is long, white, and fleshy. It is usually unbranched and can be easily distinguished from the root of water hemlock, which is made up of several tubers.

Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze)

Poke (Phytolacca americana L.) Poke is an erect, branched, smooth herb with coarse, succulent, purplish stems; at maturity it is 3 to 10 feet tall. Its leaves, borne on short stalks, are alternately placed and ovate and are without teeth on their margins. Leaves grow up to about 5 inches long. Poke bears small white flowers on short flowerstalks along separate branches at the growing tip of the plant and in the axils of the leaves. Each flower becomes a dark purple berry, flattened and spherical. The berries contain crimson juice and about 10 seeds each. A perennial, poke comes up year after year from an enormous taproot but it is spread only by seed.

Purple Mint (Perilla frutescens)

Redroot see Pigweed

Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) Rhododendron is a genus of a shrub with about 800 species worldwide. Its ovate evergreen or deciduous leaves are alternate, 1/2 – 8 inches in length depending on variety, with smooth untoothed margins. They are dark green with a glossy upper surface and a dull underside. Large trusses of bell-shaped flowers bloom from spring to early summer. Plants are available with flowers in colors such as white, purple, deep rose, red, yellow, and orange. Rhododendron and its closely related azalea have been hybridized for many uses in gardens and rarely reach above 3-5 feet tall in northern states including Illinois.

Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.)

Squirrelcorn (Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp.) see Dutchman's Breeches

Staggerweed (Dicentra spp.) see Dutchman's Breeches

St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum L.)

Stink Weed see Jimson Weed Jimsonweed is a stout, coarse annual herb 2 to 5 feet tall, with spreading branches. It has a pale-green stem and large, ovate, green or purplish, strong-scented leaves, coarsely toothed on their margins. Its flowers are large, white, and tubular, 2 to 4 inches long, and set on short stalks in the axils of branches. Its circular seeds, about 1/8 inch across, are contained in a hard, prickly capsule which, when ripe, splits lengthwise into four parts.

Stump Tree see Kentucky Coffee Tree Other common names include: American coffee berry, Kentucky mahogony, nicker treet, stump tree. Kentucky coffee tree is a large round-barked tree belonging to the legume family and reaches heights of 60 to 100 feet. Its short trunk, 1 to 2 feet in diameter, divides into several large branches that end in contorted, stout twigs. Twice-compound leaves are arranged feather-fashion in 3-7 pairs of leaflets which are more or less ovalish without marginal teeth and 2-4 inches long. The tree is most easity identified in fall and winter for its large deressed leaf scars. The leaf which emerges late in spring is made up of a hundred or more separate oval leaflets arranged on the branches of the rib. The flower, which blooms in May, is inconspicuous, greenish-white in terminal racemes, and has a tubular base about 1/2 inch long. Male and female flowers are found on the same tree. The fruit is a thick, flat pod, containing 4-7 flat broad seeds with a sticky pulp between them. The pulp dries at maturity and the seeds become olive-brown, 1/2 – 3/4 inches in diameter.

 

Sudan Grass (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense Hitchc.)

Summer Cypress see Fireweed Other names: Summer Cypress, Burning Bush, Mexican Fireweed

Thorn Apple see Jimson Weed

Tulip (Tulipa spp.)

Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculata L.) This 2-10 feet tall herbaceous perennial or biennial native of the Umbelliferae family is very difficult to separate from other species of the same family. It has a tuberous root with 2-8 oblong tubers which are 1.5-3 inches long and about 1/2 inch thick at the thickest point near the middle and stem end. The purple-streaked stems are stout and erect with much branching. The stems are solid when very young, but become hollow with nodes where the leaflets are attached. The stems are chambered with horizontal diaphragm of pith tissue which are more closely arranged at the base of the stem. The horizontal plates of piths are most easily visible by cutting the stem base lengthwise. The alternate leaves are pinnately 2-3 times compound. The leaves of most species are lanceolate, 2-5 inches long, and sharply toothed. The base of the ong petioles clasp the stem. Flowers are white and tiny (no more than 1/8 inch across), have 5 petals, and appear in loose compound umbels at branch ends in mid summer. Umbels measure from 2 to 8 inches across and become somewhat spherical in fruit. Fruits are ovoid and ribbed on the outer surface. New growth begins from tubers as well as from seeds.

 

 

 

White Snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum Hout.) White snakeroot is an erect, branched herb usually about 3 feet tall but varying from 1 to 5 feet. It has slender, round stems and branches bearing pointed, oval, oppositely placed leaves. These leaves, 3 to 5 inches long and petioled, are sharply toothed on the margins. Each leaf has 3 main veins that show prominently on the underside. The roots are fibrous, coarse, and shallow. In late summer, numerous small heads of minute white flowers appear at the top of the stem and the ends of the branches. These flower heads, except that they are white, are almost exactly like the flower heads of the familiar ageratum of gardens. Later the flowers are replaced in the heads by small black seeds each with a crown of soft white hairs. Because the leaves of white snakeroot resemble those of the nettle, other plants with nettle-like leaves are often mistaken for it. Two such plants are the nettle-leaved sage and the nettle-leaved vervain. Even without flowers or fruit, these plants can be easily distinguished from white snakeroot. The nettle-leaved sage, a rare plant in some southern Illinois counties, has square stems; white snakeroot stems are round. The nettle-leaved vervain, a common weed throughout Illinois, has lance-shaped leaves; white snakeroot leaves are broad at the base but narrow quickly in a wedge-shaped part to the petiole.

 

Wild Onion (Allium spp.) Wild onion ( A. validum or A. canadense ) is a bulbous herb of the Amaryllis family and is a close relative of cultivated onion ( Allium cepa L.). It has a distinct onion odor. It has slender grass-like leaves and reaches about 2 feet in height when flowers appear in late summer. Leaves are narrow, long, and with parallel edges arising from the small underground bulb. Flowers, varying in color, depending on the species, from white to pink, appear at the top of a leafless stem and eventually become bulblets which drop to the ground and propagate.

Yellow Sage see Lantana Lantana (yellow sage) is a native of tropical Americas and West Africa. In the northern states including Illinois, it is grown as a garden annual reaching 12-18 inches tall . In the south, from Florida to California, it grows as a perennial shrub of 3-6 feet tall. In the tropics, it may grow even taller. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 1-5 inches long and 1-2 inches wide, with very small rounded teeth, somewhat rough and hairy. Leaves are aromatic when crushed. Flowers are borne in dense clusters 1-2 inches across on the axils near the top of the stem. Each flower is tubular with 4 lobes flaring to about 1/4 inch, initially yellow or pink gradually changing to orange and deep red. Often, the different colored flowers are present on the same cluster. Fruit is fleshy, greenish-blue to black, and berry-like with each containing one seed.

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